Table Relationship Of English To Other Language In Indo-European Family Urdu – The Language Of Pakistan

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Urdu – The Language Of Pakistan

Urdu is part of the Indo-Aryan group, which is a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages. The language itself is a mixture of Turkish, Persian, Pashto, Arabic, Sanskrit and Hindi. The main influences come from the Turkish and Persian languages, followed by Arabic and Sanskrit. Urdu is very similar to Hindustani (also known as Hindi). Hindi has a greater Sanskrit influence than Urdu, but Urdu and Hindi speakers can easily communicate with each other with little effort.

In Urdu it is called “Kapena doo” which means Armies or Hordes; This language was created in the Indo-Pak sub-continent about 1000 years ago, when soldiers speaking different languages ​​such as Turkish, Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Hindi and other local languages ​​fought together in the armies of the rulers of India at that time. This is the time when the Aryan enemies from central Asia came and conquered large parts of India. These were the Moghul rulers who came with the Turkish cavalry through Afghanistan and India; recruiting soldiers in the areas they passed through. From that time, there were so many languages ​​spoken in the army that a new language evolved. Its origin in the barracks, it was called Urdu. The first Mughal ruler was Zaheeruddin Baber and when he invaded India ten thousand Ottomans were sent to him. Baber’s army was mainly Persian-speaking, with a large group of Pashto-speakers mixed in with the Turkic-speaking cavalry before the invasion of India. Over the years Urdu evolved in these military camps and eventually found itself spoken in many parts of the Moghul Empire, mainly by Muslims and eventually in Moghul courts, where Persian was spoken.

Urdu is very close to Hindi and the grammar is almost exactly the same. Urdu uses the Persian alphabet with several additions to match the phonetics of the local languages. The script is also called the Nastaliq style, which is actually a Perso-Arabic script. It is written from right to left unlike the Roman alphabet which is written from left to right.

Urdu is spoken by more than 100 million people as a first or second language. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan and one of the 23 official languages ​​of India. The official language of Pakistan is English, but Urdu is also used officially by law enforcement agencies and local governments. It is also widely spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Bangladesh. Urdu speakers are also found in Europe, USA and Middle East. It spread in these areas as people migrated to these areas in search of work.

Urdu has four main dialects Pinjari (Pin Ja ree), Rekhta (Ray kha ta), Deccani (Bakha nee) and Khairboli (Khai Boalee). Pinjari, Deccani and Rekhta have almost disappeared, but may have been merged with the modern pronunciation known as Khairboli. Rekhta had the greatest Persian influence, followed by Khairboli and Deccani. Rekhta is the language of Urdu poetry and hence it is considered as a language. Khairboli is Modern Vernacular Urdu and is spoken in Karachi, Delhi and Lucknow. Pinjari and Deccani spoken in Hyderabad and Anderpardesh in India are almost extinct.

The current language is Modern Vernacular Urdu. People who speak this language are also called Ahal-e-zuban, (People of the tongue or language). People who have Urdu as their mother tongue are called Urdu speakers in most parts of Pakistan. People who speak Urdu as their second language have a very different accent, especially people from Punjabi and Pashto speaking areas. Pronunciation in the Punjab regions is based on the Punjabi language and many Punjabi words form common Urdu words in these regions. Pashto-speakers have a neutral voice and can be heard clearly; however many Pashto speakers who speak Urdu often confuse gender in the language. There is also an English influence on Urdu in Pakistan and India. Words like import, export, real (pronounced gen yun when used in Urdu), kitchen, glass, chicken, table, toilet and many other words are used as part of modern Urdu.

Urdu was given its name in 1751, when a famous writer Saraj-uddin Aarzoo named this language as Urdu. The first Urdu book was called “Woh Majlis” (meaning collection of writings) in 1728 and the first Urdu poet was Ameer Khusro (1253-1325 AD)

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