How To Check If Windows 8.1 Is Single Language Edition Computer Appreciation For Beginners (Part 5)

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Computer Appreciation For Beginners (Part 5)

Here, we want to focus on the external hardware parts of the computer system, their types, functions and how they can be used. A proper understanding of this subject regarding the computer will help beginners immensely on how to use these devices.

Hardware:

Hardware is the parts of the computer itself including the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and related microchips and microcircuits, keyboards, monitors, cases and drives (floppy, hard, CD, DVD, optical, tape, etc. …). Other additional parts called peripheral components or devices include mice, printers, modems, scanners, digital cameras and cards (sound, color, video) etc… Together they are often referred to as personal computers or PCs.

Monitors:

The monitor is one of the output devices that displays information on the screen when you type. Without the monitor, you cannot see what is happening on the computer. This is called output information. When the computer needs more information, it will display a message on the screen, usually through a dialog box. Monitors come in many types and sizes from simple monochrome (black and white) screens to full color screens.

Most desktop computers use a monitor with a cathode ray tube and most notebooks or portable systems use a liquid crystal display (LCD). To get the full benefit of today’s software with full color graphics and animations, computers need a color monitor with a display or graphics card.

Keyboard:

The keyboard is one of the input devices used to send information into the computer or input information. There are many different keyboard layouts and sizes with the most common for Latin-based languages ​​being the QWERTY layout (named for the first 6 keys). The Standard keyboard has 101 keys while the Enhanced keyboard has 104 keys and above.

Some of the keys have a special use. They are called command or computer keys. The 5 most common are the Escape or ESC, Control or CTRL, Alternate or Alt and the Shift keys although there may be more (the Windows key for example or the Command key). Each key on a standard keyboard has one or two characters. Press the key to get the lower character and hold Shift to get the upper one.

Sections in an Enhanced Keyboard:

(1) Program operation area (F1 – F12)

(2) Writing area or alphanumeric area (combination of alphabets and numbers)

(3) Movement area or dedicated cursor keys (8 in number)

(4) Numeric keypad (this section of the keyboard is controlled by the Num Lock. That is, when the Num Lock light is on, the numbers work, but when they are off, the commands written below the numbers take charge )

(5) The Status Indicator (Indicates the Num Lock, Caps Lock and Scroll Lock Light)

(6) Computer keys (such as Power, Sleep, Wake, Pause Break etc.)

Keyboard Layout and Data Entry:

Enter or Return – Move the cursor in a line and to the left margin. Also enter process commands, such as choosing an option in a dialog box (message) and submitting a form.

Del or Delete – Delete the character at the cursor and / or characters to the right of the cursor and all the highlighted (or selected) text.

BKSP or Backspace – Removes the character to the left of the cursor and all highlighted text.

Space Bar – Move the cursor one space at a time to the right

Shift Key – Use the shift keys to type capital letters and to type the upper character on keys with two characters on them.

Caps Lock – Lock the keyboard to type capital letters (a light turns on when the capital lock is active)

Tab – Move the cursor five spaces to the right (the number of spaces is usually adjustable). The tab moves to the next field in a form or table (Shift-Tab for the previous field).

ESC or Escape – Clear a menu or dialog box

Arrow keys – Move the cursor around the document without changing the text

Function Keys or F Keys – Access commands by themselves or in combination with the three command keys; CTRL, SHIFT and ALT

Command or Special Keys:

Command keys normally do nothing on their own, but work in combination with other keys. Each piece of software uses command keys differently, although there is a move to standardize some functions. The Control or Ctrl key is often used to access commands. The alternative or Alt key is often used to access menus. The Shift key is used to type CAPITAL LETTERS. In addition, command keys are all used to move through documents and edit text faster and easier. Also, many computers have a Special key design specifically for the particular computer. Many keyboards now have a Windows key specifically for Windows 9x and newer systems.

Basic writing rules:

Place a space between each word, then a punctuation mark and at the end of a sentence. Always start a sentence with a capital letter. Use capitals for names, addresses, provinces and countries, places, organizations, businesses, associations, schools, colleges, universities, days of the week, months, holidays, nationalities, ethnic groups and languages.

Learning the keyboard is the first step to learning computers. Learning involves practice. It’s really as simple as that. There are two types of typing.

The first is called Touch Typing. The Touch Typist uses the Home Keys (asdf for the left hand and jkl; for the right) and all fingers on both hands as well as thumbs for the spacebar while typing. There are many commercial and public domain programs that are designed to teach this method.

Mouse:

This is another input device that is managed with a pointer controlled by the mouse. In general, if the mouse has two buttons, the left one is used to select objects and text and the right one is used to access menus. If the mouse has one button (Mac for example) it controls all the activity and a mouse with a third button can be used by specific software programs.

One type of mouse has a round ball under the bottom of the mouse that rolls and turns two wheels, which control the direction of the pointer on the screen. Another type of mouse uses an optical system to track the movement of the mouse.

Note: It is important to clean the mouse periodically, especially if it becomes slow. A ball-type mouse has a small circular panel that can be opened, allowing you to remove the ball. Lint can be carefully removed with toothpicks or tweezers and the ball can be washed with mild detergent. An accumulation will accumulate on the small wheels in the mouse. Use a small tool or fingernail to scratch it, being careful not to scratch the wheels. The trackballs can be cleaned like a mouse and the touch-pad can be washed with a clean and damp cloth. An optical mouse can accumulate material from the surface it is in contact with which can be removed with a fingernail or a small tool.

The mouse operates in three forms

(1) Pointing: This is an act of positioning the mouse pointer on a particular icon or location. In this case, nothing happens.

(2) Clicking: This is an act of pressing the left mouse button once or twice to double click to execute a command.

(3) Dragging: It is an act of pressing the left mouse button and moving the mouse. This action allows the user to draw objects and move them from one place to another.

Central Processing Unit (CPU):

This is the brain or engine of the computer that controls every manipulation of the system. Although the term refers to a specific chip or processor, the performance of the CPU is determined by the rest of the circuits and chips of the computer.

Currently the Pentium chip or processor, made by Intel, is the most common CPU, although there are many other companies that produce processors for personal computers. Examples are the CPU made by Motorola and AMD. With faster processors, clock speed becomes more important.

Compared to some of the first computers that operated below 30 megahertz (MHz), Pentium chips started at 75 MHz in the late 1990s. Speeds now exceed 3000+ MHz or 3 gigahertz (GHz) and various manufacturers of chips use different measurement standards (check your local computer store for the latest speed). It depends on the circuit board that the chip is housed in, or the motherboard, as to whether you will be able to upgrade to a faster chip. The motherboard contains the circuits and connections that allow the various components to communicate with each other.

Although there were many computers using many different processors before this, I call the 80286 processor the advent of home computers as these were the processors that made computers available to the average person. Using a processor before the 286 involved learning a proprietary system and software. Most new software are developed for newer and faster processors, so it can be difficult to use an older computer system. These are the four major parts of the computer system that the computer cannot do without.

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