How Does The Development Of Language Help Children Acquire Self-Control Comparing Freud’s Psychosexual Theory and Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

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Comparing Freud’s Psychosexual Theory and Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Psychoanalytic theory arose from the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud’s theory also inspired and expanded on others. Of these neo-Freudians, the ideas of Erik Erikson have become perhaps the best known.

Freud developed a theory that described development in terms of a series of five psychosexual stages. These phases are oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital phases. According to Freud, the conflicts that occur during each of these stages can have a lifelong influence on personality and behavior. If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, it will result in a healthy personality. If some problems are not solved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. Fixation is a persistent focus in an early psychosexual stage.

Erik Erikson, on the other hand, developed the eight-stage theory of psychosocial development that describes growth and change throughout life, focusing on social interactions and conflicts that develop during the various stages of development.

Erik Erikson’s stages are as follows:

Stage 1: “Trust vs. Mistrust.” During this stage, the child develops a sense of trust with the caregiver and failure in this stage leads to mistrust.

Stage 2: “Autonomy versus Shame”. This is the period where a child develops a sense of self-control and failure to achieve this leads to shame and self-doubt.

Stage 3: “Initiative vs. Guilt.” A child in his preschool is trying to develop a sense of his own drive and initiative. Failure to do so leads to feelings of guilt.

Stage 4: “Industry vs. Inferiority.” This is a period when the child who goes to school develops a sense of personal ability and competence.

Stage 5: “Identity versus Role Confusion”. Young teenagers and young adults are beginning to develop a unique self-concept, a sense of personal identity. Failure to achieve this stage leads to role confusion.

Stage 6: “Intimacy vs. Isolation.” During this period, a young adult will question the meaning of his relationship with others. Failure to do so causes the individual to suffer feelings of isolation.

Stage 7: “Generativity vs. Stagnation.” Half of the adult at this stage has the concern of whether one has contributed to the success of the children and the future generation. Failure to achieve this stage leads to personal stagnation.

Stage 8: “Integrity vs. Despair.” During this period of late adulthood, one will begin to reflect on his life and even look back with a sense of fulfillment or bitterness. Failure to complete this stage causes despair.

There are many similarities between Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory. Both had their own theories about personality development. Theories are divided into stages of a person’s life. The personality developed over time as a result of the interaction between the child’s innate drive and the response with the key person in the child’s world. The child’s personality depends on success in all stages.

In contrast to Freud, Erik Erikson placed less importance on the sexual drive of the individual as a factor in normal development. Erikson also placed more emphasis on cultural or environmental influences in his theory. Unlike Freud, Erikson proposed that a person’s sense of identity is not fully developed during adolescence, but instead continues to develop and evolve throughout a person’s life. Erikson also downplayed the importance of maturation in cognitive development and instead focused on the importance of cultural questions.

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