High-Level Computer Language Programs Are Directly Understood By A Computer Transitive and Intransitive Verbs in Japanese

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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs in Japanese

One aspect of Japanese that confuses beginning learners is the plethora of verb pairs. They seem to be everywhere, but unlike English, where you generally have one word that works for both transitive and intransitive verbs (ie, change, turn, run, etc.), or two other words entirely different (send/return). ; beat / win; grow / grow, etc.), Japanese has pairs that sound almost exactly the same (modosu/modoru; kaesu/kaeru; mawasu/mawaru and so on). Also, these pairs use the same basic kanji, and only the ending of the word changes.

Before we get into how to distinguish between the two, though, let’s make sure everyone understands what “transitive” and “intransitive” really mean. Basically, a verb is transitive if it takes a direct object. Verbs like throw, set, and repair are all transitive, since they all take direct objects. It would be strange to just say “I launched”, “It installed” or “It fixed”. All these verbs need something else to sound complete in English. So: I threw the ball. She set up the computer. He fixed the car. and so on.

Other verbs cannot take direct objects (or sometimes any object). These are intransitive verbs. Cry, sleep and sulk are examples. “I slept” is a perfectly good sentence in English, and even if you add something after it (a place, time, etc.), what you add will not be a direct object.

I slept on my bed.

I slept ten hours.

I slept with my teddy bear.

Notice that in the examples immediately above, a preposition (on, for, with, etc.) comes between the verb and the object, which (in English) is how you know it’s an indirect object rather than a direct object . .

If you’re not into grammatical explanations, another way to think about it is this: transitive verbs directly affect the object of the sentence. Throwing a ball affects the ball in a very direct way; change the location of the ball. On the other hand, sleeping does not really change the bed, the ten o’clock or the teddy bear. If the action directly affects the object, you can be sure that the verb is transitive.

So now that we got that out of the way, how about those Japanese verb pairs? The first and easiest way to find out which of the pair is transitive is to look for a “su” in Japanese. If the verb has a “su” in it, it’s a good bet (actually a sure thing) that it will be the transitive member of the pair. And the verb without the “su” will be intransitive. This is one of the most consistent rules in Nihongo, so it’s worth learning.

Here is a basic list of some of the most common verb pairs you may encounter. In each pair, the first is transitive, the second intransitive.

Fashionable/fashionable

Kaesu/kaeru (return something, return [oneself])

okosu/okiru

give/deru

okosu/okoru

ugokasu/ugoku

otosu/ochiru

And so on.

The above is the easiest rule to apply for relatives of T / I verbs, one must be applied first, since every time one of the verbs in the pair has a “su” that verb will be transit 100% of the time However, there are many other pairs that exist where neither verb has a “su”. In this case, as a secondary rule, the best idea is to look for which of the verbs has an “e” in it, and that verb will usually be the transitive member of the pair. Some examples:

tateru/tatsu (Note that this pair does not fall under the first rule, as what looks like a “su” in Roman letters is actually a “tsu” when written in Japanese).

yabururu/yabururu

ater/ater

tomorrow/tomorrow

kaeru/kawaru (change something/be changed)

tsutaeru/tsutawaru

Although this second rule is not quite as pervasive and universal as the first, it will still help you in most cases.

So there you have it. Two rules that, when used in the correct order, will eliminate about 99% of the headaches you encounter in relation to Japanese T/I verb pairs. The best part of mastering this lesson is that once you get past the confusion, you can actually learn many Japanese verbs at twice the regular rate because you can only get the two verbs in the pair at the same time. This is much easier than trying to memorize random pairs of verbs, or memorizing one at a time.

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