English Became A World-Wide Language For Several Reasons. England Started India – Economic Development, History and International Relations

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India – Economic Development, History and International Relations

India and Indian civilization have played a major role in human development, world history and international relations. With about 1.2 billion people, India is the world’s largest democracy and the second largest country by population. In recent decades, rapid economic growth and globalization have led to higher living standards and greater integration with the world economy. From 1980 to 2010, India’s Human Development Index (HDI) increased by 62 percent, and life expectancy at birth in India increased from 42.4 to 63.7 years from 1960 to 2008.

Economic Growth, Development and Mega-Cities

The rapid economic growth and development of India is accompanied by the rise and dramatic growth of the so-called mega-cities. People across India and other developing countries are flocking to cities and urban areas in search of more opportunities and higher standards of living. The fruits of their labors and the economic advantages of the cities’ financial, human and social capital are helping to fuel India’s development and urbanization.

India will have more than 68 cities with populations of more than one million people by 2030, and more than 40 percent of Indians will live in cities of more than one million people by 2025 according to the Global Institute McKinsey.

Indian Society, Culture and Language

Indian society is organized by a hierarchical caste system of four levels: priests (Brahmins), warriors (kshatriyas), wealth creators (vaishyas) and workers and peasants (shudras). A fifth group has long been excluded from the formal caste system for doing dirty work that previously called them “untouchables.” Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi was a leading champion of the poor and untouchables, who renamed them harijan (“children of God”) and also from the term dalits (“the oppressed”). Economic development gradually loosened some of the rigidities of India’s class structure.

India is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country. As of 2001, 29 languages ​​were spoken by more than one million people in India, and more than 122 languages ​​were spoken by at least 10,000 people. The primary and secondary official languages ​​of India are Hindi and English, respectively.

History – Colonization, Independence and Partition

India’s business opportunities attract companies from Portugal, Holland, England, France and Denmark. The most famous of these outfits, the British East India Company, was chartered by Queen Elizabeth on December 31, 1600. In 1668, the British East India Company had chartered the enclave of Bombay . The East India Company’s settlement at Fort William eventually became Calcutta (present-day Kolkata).

British forces succeeded in putting down the Indian Mutiny or the First War of Independence, which began with their Indian soldiers revolting against cow and pork fat used on new rifle cartridges. India officially became a British colony in 1858 when the British army abandoned the revolt, and the British crown took over the administration of India.

The resistance of Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru of the Indian National Congress to British rule eventually led to the Government of India Act of 1935. India finally achieved full independence when the Indian subcontinent was was officially divided into the separate nation states of India and Pakistan. August 15, 1947.

Politics and Democracy in India

India became the world’s largest democracy when it adopted universal suffrage (right to vote) for all adults in 1951 after the promulgation of the Constitution for the “Sovereign Democratic Republic and Union of States” of India on January 26, 1950.

International Relations and Foreign Policy

India’s relationship with Pakistan plays a key role in India’s role in international politics and security. The uneasy relationship between India and Pakistan can be traced to the post-WWII partition of the Indian subcontinent, ongoing territorial disputes, particularly over Kashmir, and divided cultural alliances between Hinduism and Islam. The goals of maintaining peace and stability and preventing any escalation of nuclear weapons drive the foreign policies of many countries in the region, especially those of the United States and other highly developed Western nations.

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