An Iq Test Often Used For Second-Language Learners Is The Gender, Age and Grade Differences in Pakistan on Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices Test

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Gender, Age and Grade Differences in Pakistan on Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices Test

Introduction

The term intelligence is defined as the aggregate or global ability of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment. People differ in intellectual ability. This difference is due to the particular genes we inherit and the environment in which we grow up. The environmental conditions that determine how an individual’s intellectual potential will develop include nutrition, health, quality of stimulation, emotional climate of the home and type of feedback elicited by behavior.

The only way to evaluate intelligence quantitatively is by measuring different aspects of intelligence. The measurement of intelligence essentially consists of a qualitative and quantitative assessment of mental production in terms of its number and speed that are affected. Intelligent behavior can be classified into three types: mechanical, social and abstract.

The result of the intelligence test shows that those who score high on any of the types of intelligence tests tend to score high on the rest and the same for those who score low or intermediate. All intellectual abilities could be expressed as a function of two factors, a general or intellectual factor common to each ability, and another specific factor specific to each particular ability.

Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices test has been widely used in a wide variety of settings in different countries around the world, including Pakistan as a culture-fair measure of non-verbal intelligence. It is designed for use with children between the ages of 5 ½ and 11/2 years. It measures abstract reasoning through the use of meaningless geometric diagrams. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age, gender and grade on intelligence scores.

Method

Champion

The sample consisted of 192 students of Karachi High School, including 107 boys and 85 girls of the first, second and third grades. Their ages ranged from 5 1/2 to 10 years. and 5 months.

Procedure

Before the actual test, rapport was established with the children and the nature of the test was explained to them to reduce the anxiety of the test. Therefore, it was held in an informal atmosphere. The test was administered individually according to standard instructions. However, they have been given in Urdu language for better understanding. RCPM was scored by manual scoring key. The number of correct responses by the subject constituted the total score of the test. The age (in years) of the children is also verified from the school register.

Results and discussion

The data of 192 students reveals that there is no significant difference between the intellectual performance of boys and girls on the RCPM (Mean for boys is 16.02 and for girls is 16.69). This finding is consistent with previous findings (eg Aiken, 1982, Halpern, 1986). It can be suggested that the quality of stimulation and feedback that are necessary for the development of mental faculties, such as to educate relationships and analogical reasoning, is more or more. less the same for both sexes. In addition, the reinforcement of problem-solving behavior, encouragement and gender stereotypes by parents and teachers may not be different for children of the age included in the present study.

The result of the test in terms of grades indicate that the children of the higher level do better than the children of the lower level. Ansari and Iftikhar (1984) suggest that while there is no significant effect of grade on SPM scores in rural school children in Pakistan, a significant effect of grade on SPM scores appears in the urban group . School seems to improve many perceptual skills (eg mental rotation, different self-judgments, visual-spatial reasoning (figure-ground discrimination) and conceptual skills (eg learning rules, free association, analogical reasoning, multiple classification) which is necessary for successful performance.on IQ tests.

The school also helps students with attitudes and values ​​(for example, to attend the test environment, to monitor and time their answers and intrinsic motivation, which can improve their test performance. However, it cannot be ignored the possibility of the confounding effect of motivation on a better performance higher grade children.

The present study also indicates that the effect of different age groups on RCPM is significant.

References:

Aiken, L, R. (1982). Psychological testing and assessment (4th Ed.). Boston; Allyn and Baccon.

Ansari, ZA & Iftikhar, MN (1984). Validity of Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices for urban and rural school children in Pakistan (Part 1, Basic facts). Islamabad; National Institute of Psychology.

Halpern, DF (1986). Gender differences in cognitive abilities. New Jersey; Lawrence Erlbaum.

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